The small business specialists
Phone: 13 12 49
A business contract is a legally binding agreement between two or more people.
TIP: Contracts can be complex. It is important that you fully understand the terms of a contract before signing anything. You are advised to seek legal and professional advice first.
Dealing with contracts is part of running a small business. You will have a number of business relationships involving some type of contractual commitment or obligation.
You may be:
Managing your contracts and business relationships is very important.
TIP: You should be aware that the majority of contracts entered into will have goods and services tax (GST) implications.
Contracts can be verbal (spoken), written or a combination of both. Some types of contract such as those for buying or selling real estate or finance agreements must be in writing.
Written contracts may consist of a standard form agreement or a letter confirming the agreement.
Verbal agreements rely on the good faith of all parties and can be difficult to prove.
It is advisable (where possible) to make sure your business arrangements are in writing, to avoid problems when trying to prove a contract existed.
Regardless of whether the contract is verbal or written, it must contain four essential elements to be legally binding.
For a contract to be legally binding it must contain four essential elements:
However it may still be considered invalid if it:
There is no specific format that a contract must follow. Generally it will include some terms, either expressed or implied, that will form the basis of the agreement. These terms may outline contract conditions or contract warranties.
Contract conditions are fundamental to the agreement. If the contract conditions are not met it is possible to terminate the contract and seek compensation or damages.
Contract warranties are less important terms and not fundamental to the agreement. You cannot terminate a contract if the warranties are not fulfilled, however, you may be able to seek compensation for any losses incurred.
When negotiating the contract terms make sure the conditions of the contract are clearly defined and agreed to by all parties.
Contracts may follow a structure that can include, but are not limited to, the following items:
TIP: In almost all cases of creative work (such as a logo you pay to have designed) copyright will remain with the creator, regardless of whether they created it on your behalf. If you engage a contractor to produce material that attracts copyright protection make sure the contract includes assignment of these protections, so that you own all the rights to the materials you paid to have created.
A standard form contract is a pre-prepared contract where most of the terms are set in advance with little or no negotiation between the parties. These contracts are usually printed with only a few blank spaces for adding names, signatures, dates etc.
Examples of standard form contracts can include:
Standard form contracts are generally written to benefit the interests of the person offering the contract. It is possible to negotiate the terms of a standard form contract. However in some cases your only option may be to ‘take it or leave it’. You should read the entire contract, including the fine print, before signing.
If you intend to offer standard form contracts you must not include terms that are considered unfair. This could include terms that:
There are laws protecting consumers from unfair contract terms in circumstances where they had little or no opportunity to negotiate with businesses (such as standard form contracts).
A new law protecting small businesses from unfair contract terms in standard form contracts will apply to contracts entered into or renewed on or after 12 November 2016, where:
For more information on unfair contract terms visit the ACCC website.
Before you sign a contract:
Once you’ve signed a contract you will not be able to get out of it without paying a penalty (sometimes the full amount of the contract) or you may be taken to court by the other party to compensate their loss. Some contracts may allow you to terminate early, with or without penalty. You should seek legal advice if you want to include an opting-out clause.
TIP: If it is not possible to have a written contract make sure you have other documentation such as emails, quotes, or notes about your discussions to help you identify what was agreed.
Most contracts end once the work is complete and payment has been made.
Contracts can also end:
If a contract warranty or minor term has been breached it is unlikely that it can be terminated, though the other party may seek compensation or damages.
Some contracts may specify what will be payable if there is a breach. This is often called liquidated damages.
If there is a dispute regarding the contract it is important both parties communicate clearly to attempt to resolve the matter. You may consider using our low-cost Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) service or seek legal advice to help resolve your dispute.
► Read the Working with Contracts guide developed by the Federal Government
► Visit the ACCC website for information on contracts and agreements
► Follow these tips to improve contracting and avoid disputes